Chinese name of new energy Foreign Name New Energy alias Non-conventional energy classification Solar energy, geothermal energy, wind energy, marine energy and other characteristics of environmental protection, sustainable use
4 solar energy
▪ Solar PV
▪ Solar thermal
▪ Solar energy
5 Nuclear energy
▪ Defects in nuclear energy
6 Ocean Energy
▪ A brief introduction
▪ Ocean energy characteristics
▪ Wave power generation
▪ Tidal power generation
7 Wind Energy
▪ A brief introduction
▪ Wind power generation
8 Biomass Energy
▪ A brief introduction
▪ Use the status quo
9 Geothermal energy
11 Ocean osmotic energy
13 Current Situation Future
14 The latest market situation
15 International cooperation
16 Development Prospects
17 Old Fuel New Energy
18 Future New Energy
20 New Policies
In 1980 (Geng Shen) the United Nations convened the "United Nations new
Energy and Renewable Energy Conference "on the new energy is defined as: new technologies and new materials, based on the traditional renewable energy development and utilization of modern, inexhaustible, cycle of renewable energy to replace the limited resources , Environmental pollution of fossil energy, focusing on the development of solar energy, wind energy, biomass, tidal energy, geothermal energy, hydrogen and nuclear energy (atomic energy)
New energy sources refer to renewable energy, including solar energy, biomass energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, wave energy, ocean current energy and tidal energy, as well as the thermal cycling between the ocean surface and the deep layer, which are developed and utilized on the basis of new technologies. ; In addition, there are hydrogen, methane, alcohol, methanol, etc., and has been widely used in coal, oil, natural gas, water and other energy sources, known as conventional energy. With the limited nature of conventional energy and environmental issues have become increasingly prominent in order to environmental protection and renewable energy as the characteristics of new energy more and more countries attention.
New energy sources that can form industries in China include water energy (mainly small hydropower stations), wind energy, biomass energy, solar energy, geothermal energy and so on, which are recyclable clean energy sources. The development of new energy industry is not only an effective supplementary means of the whole energy supply system, but also an important measure of environmental governance and ecological protection. It is the final energy choice to meet the sustainable development needs of human society.
In general, conventional energy is technically mature and has been large-scale use of energy, and new energy is usually not yet large-scale use, is actively research and development of energy. Therefore, coal, oil, natural gas and large and medium-sized hydropower are regarded as conventional energy, while the solar energy, wind energy, modern biomass, geothermal energy, ocean energy and hydrogen energy as new energy. With the development of technology and the concept of sustainable development, the industrial and living organic wastes, which have been regarded as rubbish in the past, have been re-recognized and have been deeply researched and exploited as a material for energy resource utilization. Recycling of waste can also be seen as a form of new energy technologies.
Compared with the conventional energy, the new energy has different content in the different historical period and the level of science and technology, the new energy has different content, and the new energy is the new energy. In today's society, new energy usually refers to solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, hydrogen and so on.
By category can be divided into: solar, wind, biomass, hydrogen, geothermal energy, ocean energy, small hydropower, chemical energy (such as ether-based fuel), nuclear energy.
According to the analysis, since 2001 China's energy consumption structure and no significant change. Petrochemical energy, especially coal consumption has been dominant in the primary energy consumption, accounting for the proportion of Jiucheng and Liu Cheng above.
For the new energy industry, that it provides the gospel. Comprehensive observation of China's stock market industry, is also illustrates this point, the Chinese green energy stocks are flying, more idle funds have invested in new energy and environmental protection industry. At the same time, China will surpass Europe to become the world's largest market for alternative energy growth. In this context, the new energy industry should seize this opportunity to actively develop wind power, solar energy and so on, to increase the proportion of new energy sources.
It is estimated that the annual radiation to the Earth's solar energy is 1.78 billion kilowatts, of which the development and utilization of 500 to 1000 billion degrees. But its distribution is very scattered, can use very little. Geothermal resources refer to the total caloric content of rock and water bodies within 5,000 meters of land depth. One of the global land part of the depth of 3 km, 150 ℃ above the high-temperature geothermal energy resources of 1.4 million tons of standard coal, some countries have embarked on commercial development and utilization. The potential of the world's wind energy of about 350 billion kilowatts, due to wind intermittently scattered, difficult to use economically, the future energy storage technology, if significant improvements in wind power utilization will increase. The ocean can include tidal energy, wave energy, sea water temperature difference energy, theoretical reserves are very impressive. Limited to the technical level, is still in a small-scale research stage. The current use of new energy technologies is not yet mature, it accounts for only a small part of the world's total energy required in the future there is great development prospects.
1) resource-rich, generally renewable characteristics, for human sustainable use; for example, onshore estimated development and utilization of wind resources for the 253GW, and as of 2003 only 0.57GW development and utilization, is expected to be available in 2010 To 4GW, 2020 to 20GW, and solar photovoltaic grid-connected and off-grid applications is expected to 2020 from 0.03GW increased by 1 to 2 GW.
2) low energy density, development and utilization requires a larger space;
3) does not contain carbon or carbon content is small, little impact on the environment;
4) widely distributed, is conducive to small-scale decentralized use;
5) intermittent supply, volatility, the continued supply of negative;
6) In addition to water and electricity, renewable energy development and utilization of high cost of fossil energy.
Solar energy generally refers to the radiation energy of sunlight. The main forms of solar energy use of solar thermal conversion, photoelectric conversion and photochemical conversion of the three main ways. The broad sense of solar energy is the source of many energy on earth, such as wind energy, chemical energy, water potential energy caused by solar energy or into energy forms. The use of solar energy methods are: solar cells, through the photoelectric conversion of sunlight contained in the energy into electricity; solar water heaters, the use of solar heat heat water, and the use of hot water power generation. Solar clean and environmentally friendly, without any pollution, the use of high value, solar energy is no shortage of this argument, its various advantages determine its irreplaceable status in the energy replacement.
A photovoltaic panel assembly is a power plant that generates direct current (DC) by exposure to sunlight, consisting of thin-body solid-state photovoltaic cells that are almost entirely made of semiconductor material, such as silicon. Since there is no active part, it can be operated for a long time without any loss. Simple photovoltaic cells can provide energy for watches and computers, more complex photovoltaic systems for housing lighting, and power supply for the grid. The photovoltaic panel assemblies can be made in different shapes and the assemblies can be connected to produce more power. Rooftop and building surfaces use photovoltaic panels, and are even used as part of windows, skylights or shelter systems, often referred to as PV systems attached to buildings.
The domestic major solar cell manufacturers are experiencing rare "rainy days." As more than 95% of the production capacity of exports, and too much reliance on the European market, domestic solar cell companies in recent months by a number of negative factors: European debt crisis, the euro plummeted, the European solar subsidies to cut. This series of negative factors that the domestic solar cell manufacturers both near-worries, there is foresight. However, resilient domestic firms are trying to control operational risk from both cost and demand side. In 2009, domestic solar cell production capacity of about 2.4 million kilowatts, but the domestic installed capacity of solar power is only 12 million kilowatts, 95% of the capacity of exports, of which Europe is the most important market. Over the past few years, Europe has been the focus of world solar photovoltaic power generation. In 2009, Germany, Spain, Italy and the Czech Republic, the new installed capacity of more than 4.2 million kilowatts, accounting for 60% of the world. From the beginning, Greece, Spain and other euro-zone countries outbreak of the debt crisis, the euro exchange rate worsened, the euro fell more than 12% against the dollar, the domestic solar cell manufacturers suffered serious losses.
Modern solar thermal technology will the sun polymerization, and use its energy to produce hot water, steam and
Trough solar thermal
electricity. In addition to the use of appropriate technology to collect solar energy, buildings can also take advantage of the sun's light and heat by incorporating appropriate equipment such as giant south-facing windows or building materials that absorb and slowly release solar heat .
Plants use sunlight for photosynthesis, synthesis of organic matter. Therefore, we can simulate plant photosynthesis, a large number of human synthesis of organic matter, improve solar energy efficiency.
Nuclear energy is the energy released from the nucleus by transforming its mass, in accordance with Albert Einstein's equation E = mc ^ 2, where E = energy, m = mass, c = velocity of light. The release of nuclear energy has three main forms:
nuclear power plant
A. Nuclear fission energy
The so-called nuclear fission energy is through some heavy atomic nuclei (such as uranium-235, plutonium-239, etc.) fission release energy
B. Nuclear fusion energy
The combination of two or more hydrogen nuclei (such as the hydrogen isotopes - deuterium and tritium) into a heavier nucleus, while the mass loss of a huge energy release reaction is called nuclear fusion reaction, the release of energy called nuclear Fusion energy.
C. Nuclear decay
Nuclear decay is a much slower and more natural form of fission that is slow to release because of its slow release of energy
Defects in nuclear energy
(1) resource utilization is low
(2) the nuclear waste generated after the reaction becomes a potential hazard to the biosphere, the final disposal technology has not yet been fully resolved
(3) the safety of the reactor still need to constantly monitor and improve
(4) nuclear non-proliferation requirements of the constraints that the nuclear power plant reactor generated in the plutonium-239 controlled
(5) investment in nuclear power construction costs are still higher than conventional energy power generation, investment risk
a brief introdction
Ocean energy refers to all kinds of renewable energy, such as tidal energy, wave energy, sea current energy, sea water temperature difference energy and sea water salinity difference energy.
These energy sources are renewable and does not pollute the environment, etc., is a development and utilization of strategic importance of new energy.
1. Marine oceanic water in the total reserves of large, while the unit volume, per unit area, unit length of the energy possessed by smaller. That is to say, in order to get large energy, you have to get a lot of sea water.
2. The ocean can be renewable. Ocean can be derived from the solar radiation and celestial gravity, as long as the sun, the moon and other celestial bodies and the earth co-exist, this energy will be renewable, it will be inexhaustible.
3. Ocean can have more stable and unstable energy points. More stable for the temperature difference, the salinity difference can and ocean currents. Unstable energy is divided into two kinds of regularity and irregular change. The tidal energy and the tidal current are unstable and regular. According to the law of the tide and tidal current, the tide and tidal current forecast of the tide and tide in each district are compiled, and the tide size and trend of the tide are forecasted. Tidal power plants and tidal power plants can be arranged according to the forecast power generation operation. It is wave energy that is neither stable nor regular.
4. Marine energy is clean energy, that is, once the ocean can be developed, its own little impact on environmental pollution.
Wave power generation
According to scientists projections, the Earth's wave energy reserves up to 90 trillion degrees. Marine navigation buoys and lighthouses have used the electricity generated by the wave generator to illuminate. Large-scale wave generators have also come out. China is also in the wave of power generation research and testing, and made a sailing lights for the use of power generation devices. The future of the world, every ocean will have our own wave power plant in China. Wave Energy will make a great contribution to China's electric industry.
Tidal power generation
According to the World Power Conference estimated that by 2020, the world's tidal power generation will reach 1000-3000 billion kilowatts. The world's largest tidal power station is the Lance Estuary Power Station on the English Channel in northern France with a generating capacity of 240,000 kilowatts and has been in operation for over 30 years. China has built Jiangxia Tidal Power Station in Zhejiang Province with a total capacity of 3,000 kilowatts.
a brief introdction
Wind energy is formed by the flow of solar radiation. Wind energy compared with other energy sources, has obvious advantages, it reserves large, is 10 times the water, widely distributed, never dry, the traffic inconvenience away from the main grid of the islands and remote areas is particularly important. The most common form of wind energy is wind power. There are two ideas of wind power, horizontal axis fan and vertical axis fan. Horizontal axis fan is widely used for the mainstream of wind power models.
Is the most common form of contemporary use of wind energy, since the end of the 19th century, Denmark has developed into a wind turbine, it is recognized that oil and other energy will be depleted, the emphasis on wind energy development, the use of wind to do other things.
In 1977, the Federal Republic of Germany in the famous wind Valley - Schleswig - Holstein, Burlington built one of the world's largest power generation windmill. The windmill 150 meters high, each leaf length of 40 meters, weighing 18 tons, made of glass fiber reinforced plastic.
As of the end of 2009, the cumulative global installed capacity has reached 159 million kilowatts in 2009, the new installed capacity of more than 30 million kilowatts, or 31.9%. From the cumulative installed capacity, the United States has accumulated installed capacity of 35.16 million kilowatts, ranking first; China is 26.1 million kilowatts, ranked second in the world.
a brief introdction
Biomass is derived from biomass and is a form of energy stored by the solar energy in the form of chemical energy. It comes directly or indirectly from the photosynthesis of plants. Biomass is the storage of solar energy, is a unique renewable carbon source, can be converted into conventional solid, liquid or gaseous fuel. Biomass energy resources on the earth is more abundant, and is a harmless energy. Earth's annual photosynthesis produces 173 billion tons of material, which contains energy equivalent to the world's total energy consumption of 10-20 times, but the utilization rate of less than 3%.
Construction of biogas digesters
Biomass (also known as bioenergy) is the use of organic materials (such as plants, etc.) as fuel, through gas collection, gasification (of solid gas), combustion and digestion (only wet waste) technology to generate energy. Biomass is also a valuable renewable energy source, as long as it is properly implemented, but depends on how the biomass fuel is produced.
The world is speculating corn, wheat, sugar and other food to produce gasoline and other energy to meet the growing demand, and the high cost of over-high prices. At present the main sweet sorghum, cassava and other raw materials.
For the production and life of human ability and power to provide the material resources, the national economy is an important material basis. Energy development and effective use of the extent and per capita consumption is the production technology and an important symbol of the standard of living.
Utilization status quo
By the end of 2006, 18.7 million rural household biogas digesters, 140,000 biogas digesters for domestic sewage, over 2,000 livestock and poultry farms and industrial wastewater biogas projects have been built in China, with an annual output of about 9 billion cubic meters of biogas, The population provides a quality living fuel.
China has developed a variety of fixed bed and fluidized bed gasifier to straw, wood chips, rice husk, tree branches as raw materials to produce gas. 2006 for wood and agricultural and sideline products drying more than 800 units, village-level straw gasification of nearly 600 centralized gas supply system, the production of biomass gas 20 million cubic meters.
American scientists have invented in a variety of environments can automatically collect microorganisms, proteins and other energy substances work. Can automatically collect animal dead or in vivo transformation, such as mice, small living organisms or corpses. For safety reasons, research and production has been limited, and the inclusion of exotic substances may pose a significant threat to human life in the future.
Earth's internal heat sources can come from gravity separation, tidal friction, chemical reactions and the release of radioactive elements decay energy.
Radioactive heat is the main heat source of the earth. China is rich in geothermal resources, widely distributed, there are 5500 geothermal, geothermal field 45, the total geothermal resources of about 3.2 million megawatts.
The advantages of hydrogen energy:
Safety and environmental protection: hydrogen molecular weight of 2, only 1/14 of the air, therefore, hydrogen leaks in the air will automatically escape from the ground, will not form aggregation. And other fuel gas will gather on the ground and constitute a flammable and explosive danger. Hydrogen tasteless non-toxic, will not cause human poisoning, combustion products only water, do not pollute the environment.
High temperature and high energy: 1kg of hydrogen heat value of 34000Kcal, is three times the gasoline. Hydrogen flame temperature as high as 2800 degrees, higher than the conventional liquid gas.
Heat concentration: hydrogen flame flame straight, heat loss is small, the use of high efficiency.
Automatic regeneration: Hydrogen comes from water, burning and then reduced to water.
Catalytic characteristics: Hydrogen is an active gas catalyst, can be mixed with air to join the catalytic combustion of all solid, liquid, gas fuel. Accelerate the reaction process, promote complete combustion, to improve the flame temperature, energy saving effect.
Reduction characteristics: a variety of raw materials hydrogenation refining.
Variable temperature characteristics: According to the melting point of heating objects to achieve the regulation of flame temperature.
Wide range of sources: hydrogen electrolysis from the water, the water inexhaustible, and per kg of water can be prepared 1860 liters of hydrogen gas.
Production and use: the use of advanced automatic control technology, by the oxygen machine according to the user set on-demand gas, do not store gas.
Wide range of applications: suitable for all needs of the gas.
Disadvantages of hydrogen energy:
(1) the preparation of high cost, requires a lot of power;
(2) production and storage is difficult: hydrogen density is small, difficult to liquefied, high-pressure storage unsafe.
Ocean osmotic energy
If two salt solutions are present, one with a high salt concentration and one with a low solution concentration, the two solutions will be segregated and segregated with a permeable membrane. The solution is then directed to a high concentration solution. The river is flowing fresh water, and there is salt water in the ocean, both there is a certain concentration difference. In the estuary of rivers, the water pressure of fresh water is higher than that of sea water. If a turbine generator is placed in the sea, the osmotic pressure between fresh water and seawater can drive the turbine to generate electricity.
Marine osmotic energy is a very green energy, it does not produce garbage, there is no carbon dioxide emissions, more independent of weather conditions, can be said to be inexhaustible. In waters with greater salinity, power generation from the power plant would be better, such as the Mediterranean, the Dead Sea, the Great Salt Lake in Yancheng, China, and the Great Salt Lake in the United States. Of course, there must be fresh water supply in the vicinity of the power plant. According to the Norwegian energy group leader Bad Mickelson estimates that the use of ocean penetration power generation, the global annual power generation capacity can reach 1.6 trillion degrees.
Energy is a kind of renewable energy, clean energy, refers to the kinetic energy of water, potential energy and pressure energy and other energy resources. Generalized hydropower resources include
Three Gorges Dam Satellite Map
River water energy, tidal water, wave energy, ocean current energy and other energy resources; narrow water resources refers to the river's hydropower resources. Is the conventional energy, primary energy. Water can not only be directly used by humans, it is the carrier of energy. Solar energy drives the Earth's water cycle, making it continuous. Surface water flow is an important part, in the big gap, large flow of the region, rich in water resources. As fossil fuels are declining, hydro energy is a very important and promising alternative. The world's hydroelectric power is still in its infancy. Water movements such as rivers, tides, waves, and surges can all be used to generate electricity. Can be decomposed into combustible hydrogen by electrolyzing water molecules and light, and chemically decomposing water molecules, which can replace existing mineral energy sources as new, versatile energy sources. The decomposition process of water molecules is simple and easy, less investment and quick. This gives a comprehensive utilization of water brings a wide range of prospects, on Earth, water is a kind of liquid material can be seen everywhere. Through the water decomposition device, prepared hydrogen fuel, can be used for automotive, aerospace, thermal power and other industrial and civilian areas, to a large extent, ease the human dependence on mineral resources.
Part of the renewable energy use technology has made considerable progress, and in the world formed a certain scale. Biomass, solar, wind and hydropower, geothermal energy utilization technology has been applied.
The International Energy Agency (IEA) conducted a study on the demand for international electricity from 2000 to 2030, showing that the average annual growth rate of power generation from renewable energy sources will be the fastest. The IEA study suggests that non-hydropower renewable energy generation will grow faster than any other fuel in the next 30 years at an annual growth rate of nearly 6 percent and its total generation will increase fivefold between 2000 and 2030, By 2030, it will provide 4.4% of the world's total electricity, of which biomass will account for 80% of them, look ahead "China's new energy industry development prospects and investment strategic planning analysis."
The proportion of renewable energy in primary energy is on the whole low, on the one hand, it is related to the degree of attention and policy of different countries. On the other hand, it is related to the high cost of renewable energy technology, especially solar energy with high technical content. Biomass, wind energy and so on. According to the IEA's forecast, renewable energy power generation costs will fall substantially in the next 30 years, thereby increasing its competitiveness. The use of renewable energy costs and a variety of factors, and thus the results of cost forecasts have some uncertainty. However, these predictions indicate that the cost of renewable energy technologies will continue to decline.
The Chinese government attaches great importance to the research and development of renewable energy. The State Economic and Trade Commission developed a new energy and renewable energy industry development, "15" plan,
Renewable Energy Law of the People 's Republic of China
And enacted the "Renewable Energy Law of the People's Republic of China", focusing on the development of solar thermal utilization, wind power, biomass energy efficient use and the use of geothermal energy. China has made great progress in the fields of wind power generation, ocean energy tidal power generation and solar energy utilization under the support of the state. New energy (or more appropriate renewable energy) are: solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, biomass and so on. Biomass After several decades of exploration, many experts at home and abroad have said that this kind of energy can not be vigorously developed, it will not only rob the human survival of the land resources, will lead to social unhealthy development; geothermal energy Of the development and use of air-conditioning has the same characteristics, such as large-scale development will lead to surface soil surface environment damage, will lead to another ecological environment change; and wind energy and solar energy for the earth is inexhaustible, with Of the inexhaustible health of energy, they will become the future alternative energy mainstream.
In 2008, in order to speed up China's wind power equipment manufacturing industry technological progress and promote the development of wind power industry, the central government to arrange special funds to support wind power equipment industry. In 2009, the "Solar Roof Plan" implementation of the central government to arrange special funds for photovoltaic engineering demonstration projects to be applied to make up for the initial investment in photovoltaic applications. In the same year, the "Golden Sun Demonstration Project Interim Measures for the management of financial subsidies," issued, the project to take financial subsidies, scientific and technological support and market pull to accelerate the industrialization of photovoltaic power generation and large-scale development in order to promote photovoltaic power generation technology.
In terms of taxation, in September 2008, the Ministry of Finance and the State Administration of Taxation promulgated the Circular on Relevant Issues concerning the Implementation of the Catalog of Enterprise Income Tax on Comprehensive Utilization of Resources, and pointed out that since January 1, 2008, the enterprise has adopted the "Enterprise Income Tax Preference for Comprehensive Utilization of Resources" The amount of income derived from the products listed in the Catalog as the main raw materials and the production of the products complying with the relevant standards of the State or industry shall be included in the total amount of income for the year when the amount of taxable income is calculated. In December the same year, "on the comprehensive utilization of resources and other products, value-added tax policy notice" introduced, provides for the use of wind power production value-added tax that is levied 50% policy. On the sale of self-produced comprehensive utilization of biodiesel, the implementation of VAT refund policy.
March 16, 2015, the National Development and Reform Commission, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Science and 23 ministries and commissions held for the strategic development of emerging industries of the inter-ministerial joint meeting. Energy-saving environmental protection industry, a new generation of information technology industry, bio-industry, high-end equipment manufacturing industry, new energy industry, new materials industry, new energy automotive industry has become China's key strategic nurturing new industries.
According to the meeting information, in 2014 in the emerging industries of the 18 key industries, the above-scale enterprises main business income of 15.9 trillion yuan, total profit of nearly 1.2 trillion yuan, up 13.5% and 17.6%. The same period in 2013, industrial enterprises above designated size main business income growth of only 3.3%, profit growth of 1.6%, significantly lower than the emerging industries.
In the industrial enterprises above designated size in the whole society, the total profit of strategic emerging industries accounts for nearly 19%, and the proportion of main business income is close to 15%. "" Twelfth Five-Year "National Strategic Emerging Industries Development Plan" proposed that by 2020, the strategic value of new industries accounted for the proportion of GDP strive to reach about 15%. 
Sino - British Nuclear Cooperation
British nuclear development ranks the world leader, is the nuclear energy business to seek business and technical cooperation, the ideal partner. The UK nuclear industry has a huge consumer market, its development has also been government agencies and policy support; at the same time, the British nuclear industry also has the world's leading technical experience and talent base; Moreover, the British nuclear energy industry Chain and a complete supporting service system for the development of the industry to create a stable and healthy environment.
The long-term goal of energy development was set by the UK Climate Change Act of 2008: the UK's greenhouse gas emissions would have to be reduced by 80 per cent by 2050. In order to achieve this goal, the United Kingdom is carrying out a huge energy restructuring plan, namely: the traditional power plant decommissioning, at the same time start including nuclear energy, including new energy power generation projects. A consortium of UK energy research organizations (ERP), National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL), British Council for Engineering and Nature Research (EPSRC), Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) and Energy Technology Institute (ETI) British nuclear fission energy technology road map: the preliminary report. The report states that the UK must develop a long-term strategy and roadmap for the nuclear industry, and assume that Britain will play a bigger role if it has a safe, low-carbon energy structure by 2050.
London time October 21, 2013, the British government formally approved the China Guangdong Nuclear Power Group and China National Nuclear Corporation to participate in the project to invest in new nuclear power plants, which marks the Chinese nuclear power enterprises finally landed in western developed countries. Earlier, the Chinese and British governments signed the Memorandum of Understanding on Strengthening Cooperation in the Field of Civil Nuclear Energy after the Fifth China-UK Economic and Financial Dialogue (EFD) held in Beijing on October 15. Lord Deighton, the Minister of Commerce of the United Kingdom's Ministry of Finance, took part in the signing of the memorandum as a representative of the British side, which paved the way for the British Government to formally approve the participation of Chinese nuclear power enterprises in the Hinckley C corner.
Britain is the oldest civil nuclear power of the country, China is the fastest growing civil nuclear power countries. This cooperation will benefit the Chinese and British sides at the same time. China has the world's largest nuclear power equipment manufacturing capacity, while the world's most abundant funds, which is China's nuclear power enterprises to overseas a major driving force.
Sino - Russian Energy Cooperation
Russia is the world's major energy resource-rich countries, natural gas reserves and export volume, oil production and export volume and coal, uranium, iron, aluminum and other resource reserves are in the forefront of the world. As China's largest neighbor, Russia and China's political relations mature and strong, our country as the main cooperation partners, China's energy cooperation is both willing and able, as well as natural and geographical advantages and complementary features, is China's maintenance of energy security and sustainable Development can rely on the partners.
With the rapid development of Sino-Russian relations, the scale of bilateral energy cooperation gradually from small to large, from the simple trade to oil, gas, nuclear, coal, electricity, new energy and other areas of comprehensive cooperation. China-Russia crude oil pipeline in January 2011 completed and put into production, Russia's annual oil 15 million tons. China and Russia are negotiating to increase oil supply through the pipeline project. Over the next 20 years, this energy artery will accumulate hundreds of millions of tons of oil to China. Russia to achieve a diversified oil exports, China has a stable land supply of oil. In addition to pipeline oil supply, the two countries upstream oil development, downstream refining and cooperation in the field gradually. Safe and Efficient Operation of Tianwan Nuclear Power Station Project Produced by Sino - Russian Cooperation. The coal and electricity trade between the two countries has grown by a large margin. In 2012, China imported 20 million tons of coal and 2.6 billion kwh of electricity from Russia. The future of these two figures will continue to increase.
Sino - French Nuclear Cooperation
April 25, 2013, China Guangdong Nuclear Power Group and France, Areva Group and the French power group signed a long-term cooperation in the joint statement, the three companies signed a series of documents that they will jointly develop advanced reactors to promote the world's nuclear power industry as a whole security Level of promotion. This is the third major nuclear power technology cooperation carried out by China and France over the past 30 years. China and France have 30 years of cooperation on nuclear power basis. Since the early 80s of last century, the French power companies to participate in China's Daya Bay nuclear power project construction and operation, in 30 years after the cooperation, Marshi Road stressed that the French power company is the world's largest nuclear power operators, The Group is the owner of the world's largest nuclear power development program, both of which need to strengthen nuclear power exchange and cooperation, mutual benefit and win-win.
As of April 2013, China Guangdong Nuclear Power nuclear power units in the number of 7 units, with a total installed capacity of 7.21 million kilowatts, accounting for nuclear power in mainland China, the total installed capacity of 53% of the total installed capacity; 15 units under construction, the total installed capacity of 17.75 million kilowatts, accounting for China 's total installed capacity of nuclear power in the construction of 56%. 
China's new energy development strategy in the future can be divided into three stages: the first stage to 2010, to achieve some of the new energy technology commercialization. The second stage to 2020, a large number of new energy technologies to achieve commercialization level, new energy accounts for more than 18% of the total primary energy. The third stage is the full realization of the commercialization of new energy, large-scale alternative fossil energy, energy consumption in 2050 in the total to more than 30%.
New energy as China to speed up the cultivation and development of strategic emerging industries, will be large-scale development and utilization of new energy to provide a solid technical support and industrial base. 
1, wind energy, whether the total installed capacity or new installed capacity, the world has maintained a rapid development speed, the development of wind energy will usher in the peak. Wind power price is higher than that of thermal power, and it is expected that the price will be adjusted to promote development.
2, biomass energy is expected to be rich in agricultural resources of tropical and subtropical popularity, the main problem is to reduce manufacturing costs, bio-ethanol, biodiesel and dimethyl ether fuel applications worth the wait.
3, solar energy With the gradual expansion of the scale of China's domestic PV industry, technology gradually improved, the cost of photovoltaic power generation will gradually decline, the future of China's domestic PV capacity will increase substantially.
4, car new energy and environmental pollution, energy tightness and the development of the automotive industry are closely linked, the state vigorously promote hybrid vehicles, automotive new energy strategy has begun to accelerate the implementation phase, the revenue and expenditure go hand in hand.
Old fuel new energy
New Energy: New Solution to Soros' Investment (Speculation)
Engine new energy
Hydrogen energy, wind energy, solar energy, ocean energy, biomass energy and nuclear fusion energy ... ... new energy way, but the energy use of multi-step forward in the ring. The neglected, great potential engine or work principle, the concept of innovation is the future of energy development in the first direction!
Energy efficiency is not high, waste amazing. In the classical heat engine work, the effective efficiency of energy work is only 25% (1/4), and the maximum is 1/3 (33.3%), while 75% (3/4) or 66.67% (2) / 3) are wasted as useless heat. Another accident, "Banks heat engine" is the use of memory alloy is not made of fuel, do not consume power efficient engine.
Heat engine work principle is the heat of fuel = micro-particles of disorderly movement. The thermal movement, the average three-dimensional space, said each of the energy of each direction 1/3, while the heat engine to do useful work is also a three-dimensional direction in one direction dimension. The other two-dimensional direction of the energy had to be wasted as waste heat!
The "adiabatic engine", which had been left out decades ago, did not improve the efficiency of the engine as predicted by the classical heat engine principle. Prove that the classical thermodynamic model has a problem! And is a big problem! The ratio of the outlet temperature of the heat engine to the inlet temperature is not a critical factor in determining engine efficiency!
"Insulation" is clearly not a good idea to improve the efficiency of the heat engine. What is the reason? From the "new thermodynamic engine principle"! "No heat engine". When the heat has been generated, disorderly movement has been released, World of Warcraft can not control it! The efficiency of the engine by the 1/3 or 1/4 limit shackles live. Ceramic "insulation" is no diagnosis of the "wrong side", with the wrong medicine is inevitable.
When the old energy (including new energy) is not heat, the new engine 100% work will be possible! That is, the old and new energy micro-order to do the one-dimensional movement, the efficiency of the engine to return to 100%, a waste of 2/3 or 3/4 of energy can be cited Seoul can be made to the environment or less waste heat, Pollution of the environment, conservation of natural resources!
New energy vehicle development direction
As a vehicle, every day a large number of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur oxides, hydrocarbons, lead compounds and other air pollutants, air pollution is an important source of human health and ecological environment serious Of the hazards. Energy-saving emission reduction is the eternal theme of the development of the automobile industry, and continuously strengthen energy-saving emission reduction work has become the urgent need for sound and rapid economic development.
In developed countries, cars determine the oil demand, but also affect greenhouse gas emissions and harmful gases a key factor in achieving environmental protection objectives need to reduce the car's oil consumption and gas emissions. On the other hand, the automobile is the pillar industry, is also the basic means of transport, governments have to maintain the development of vehicles to promote economic development and the improvement of public welfare. The development of energy-saving and environmental-friendly vehicles can reduce the consumption of petroleum and protect the atmospheric environment while maintaining the growth of automobiles. Therefore, governments generally regard the development of energy-saving and environmental-friendly vehicles as an important part of realizing their energy environmental policies and sustainable development of the automobile industry.
China's automobile industry, the "Eleventh Five-Year", the state has adopted a series of countermeasures, including the State Council issued in June 2007, "a comprehensive energy reduction program of work", "on the development of energy-saving environmental protection to encourage the development of small cars Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of Environmental Protection jointly issued the "Opinion on the implementation of environmental labeling products government procurement" (Treasury  No. 90), etc., and the two readjusted the "Opinion" (State Council Office  61) Automobile consumption tax. At the same time, the Chinese government in 2008-2009 is the introduction of "fuel tax", "TM" and other policies to encourage the development of small cars, in addition to support the new energy vehicles in the industrial revitalization plan, the Chinese government is through improved domestic products Oil prices "forcing" the automotive industry onto the "energy saving, environmental protection," the road. September 7, 2011, the Ministry of Finance, Development and Reform Commission, the Ministry of Industry and signed a "notice on the adjustment of energy-saving subsidies to promote the car" (Finance  754), and in October 1, 2011 come into effect, Subsidy range of energy-saving cars threshold increased. These measures clearly expressed the Government's efforts to promote energy-saving emission reduction vehicles and automotive products, "Yang suppression small" attitude. July 9, 2012, the State Council officially announced the "energy-saving and new energy automotive industry development plan (2012-2020)", planning that the development of new energy automotive industry will be pure electric drive for the development of new energy vehicles and the automotive industry transformation strategy Oriented, the current focus on promoting pure electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid car industry.
The future of new energy
The development of modern renewable energy technology is extremely rapid, will soon after 2010, more than natural gas, second only to coal, the second largest power fuel. The cost of renewable energy is reduced as the technology matures, assuming that rising fossil fuel prices and strong policy support provide the renewable energy sector with an opportunity to move away from subsidies-dependent conditions and drive emerging technologies into the mainstream . Non-hydro renewable energy (excluding biomass) is growing at a rate of 7.2% in the current forecast, exceeding the global average annual growth rate of any other energy source in terms of wind energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, tide and wave energy. The electricity sector accounts for most of the growth in renewable energy use. The proportion of non-hydro renewable energy in total generation increased from 1% in 2006 to 4% in 2030. Despite the increase in water and electricity production, but its share of electricity declined by two percentage points to 14%.
Environmental implications and energy security
Since 1993, China has become a net importer of oil, and the volume of oil imports has increased year by year, making China access to the world energy market competition.China's energy demand has been increasing rapidly. As China's fossil energy, especially oil and natural gas production relative shortage, the future of China's energy supply dependence on the international market will become increasingly high.
There are many uncertainties in international trade. International energy prices are likely to stabilize with the improvement of the international peace environment, but may fluctuate with the turbulence of the international situation. The future instability of the international oil market and oil price fluctuations will seriously affect China's oil supply, a great impact on the economy and society. Vigorously develop renewable energy can be relatively reduced in China's energy demand in the proportion of fossil fuels and dependence on imported energy, improve China's energy and economic security.
In addition, renewable energy and fossil energy compared to the most direct benefit is its environmental pollution.
The future of several new energy sources
Wave energy: the ocean wave energy. This is an inexhaustible renewable energy source. It is speculated that the ocean waves on the Earth's energy reserves of up to 9 × 104TW. In countries of new energy development plan, the use of wave energy has a place. Although the wave energy generation cost is higher, needs to further consummate, but the progress has indicated this kind of new energy potential commercial value. Japan's ocean wave power plant has been operating for 8 years, the power plant's power generation cost is higher than other power generation methods, but for remote islands, can save power transmission and other investment costs. The United States, Britain, India and other countries have built dozens of wave power station, and are running well.
Microbial: There are many countries in the world rich in sugar cane, sugar beet, cassava and so on, the use of microbial fermentation, can be made into alcohol, alcohol has a complete combustion, high efficiency, pollution-free features, with its diluted gasoline can be "ethanol gasoline" Production of alcohol-rich raw materials, low cost. According to reports, Brazil has been converted "ethanol gasoline" or alcohol-fueled cars up to hundreds of thousands, reducing air pollution. In addition, the use of microorganisms can produce hydrogen, to open up new ways of energy.
The fourth generation of nuclear energy: positive and negative atoms in the moment of the annihilation of the encounter, this time, will produce high-equivalent shock wave and optical radiation. This powerful light radiation energy can be converted into heat, if you can control the positive and negative material nuclear reaction intensity, as a new human energy, it will be the history of human energy a great energy revolution.
October 22, 2014, the National Development and Reform Commission, the Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Industry, Ministry of Construction, Ministry of Science and Technology and the State Energy Bureau 7 departments jointly issued the "Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei public transport and other public services new energy vehicles to promote the work program" By the end of 2015, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region in the proportion of new energy vehicles not less than 16%, Beijing, Tianjin taxi in the proportion of new energy vehicles is not less than 5%.
The importance of this document is that the first seven departments jointly issued a document to promote new energy vehicles, which is relatively rare; Second, this is the work program, with practical operation, and the specific objectives and the proportion of planning , Revealed a rigid development requirements.
On the other hand, the China Association of Automobile Manufacturers announced the first 9 months of 2014, the national automobile production and sales data show that new energy vehicles from January to September production of 38,522 units, sales of 38,163, respectively, year on year growth of 2.9 times and 2.8 times.
First look at the data of several groups of subsidies, the state introduced in 2009, "energy-saving and new energy vehicles to promote financial assistance demonstration funds Interim Measures," proposed to give electric vehicles up to 60,000 yuan / vehicle subsidies, 2010 Ministry of Finance and the State Development and Reform Commission jointly issued a document, made on the domestic new energy vehicles by 3,000 yuan / kWh to give subsidies, the pilot period of 2010 -2012.
Chen Ping also said that "the state's preferential policies such as exempt from purchase tax, subsidies, charging facilities to enjoy the support price, and the performance of new energy vehicles to improve and reduce costs, these factors together to promote this year a better situation. But we can see that if there is no subsidy, it may not be so many cars on sale, but there is also involved in the promotion of the government to see the performance of the current sales market, mainly buses, taxis, as well as rental market, which inside May be related to their own production of the car, bought by their own rental companies, access to state subsidies and then rented to the user.It should be said that subsidies is a big driving force, if not subsidies, then the market is still facing great Challenge, so I think the new energy vehicles, especially pure electric vehicles, from the real popularity or take some time.
As a result, the new energy vehicles favorable policies there is a clear line, public transport services will become the government to promote the development of new energy vehicles breakthrough.