Wind energy Kinetic energy generated by air flow. A form of solar energy conversion. As the solar radiation caused by the uneven surface of the Earth's various parts of the heat, causing the pressure distribution in the atmosphere imbalance in the horizontal pressure gradient under the action of the air along the horizontal direction to form the wind. The total reserves of wind energy resources is very large, the technology can be developed a year of energy about 5.3X10 ^ 13 kWh. Wind energy is renewable clean energy, large reserves, wide distribution, but its energy density is low (only 1/800 of water), and unstable. Under certain technical conditions, wind energy can be used as an important energy development and utilization. Wind energy utilization is a comprehensive engineering technology, the wind through the wind machine kinetic energy into mechanical energy, electricity and heat and so on. 
Wind energy resources are determined by wind energy density and the cumulative number of hours of wind energy available. The wind energy density is the wind power available to the unit windward area and is proportional to the cubic power of the wind speed and the air density.
table of Contents
1 Basic overview
2 Utilization overview
▪ Use forms
▪ Land and sea breeze
▪ Wind energy
▪ Energy grading
3 advantages and disadvantages
▪ Limitations and drawbacks
4 Economic Prospects
▪ Economic value
▪ Main technology
Countries encourage policies
▪ Growth in countries
Current Situation of China
Reserves and Distribution
▪ Development potential
Wind energy is a kind of available energy for mankind due to the work of air flow. It belongs to renewable energy (including hydroenergy, bioenergy, etc.). The kinetic energy of the air flow is called wind energy. The higher the air flow rate, the greater the kinetic energy. One can use the windmill to convert the kinetic energy of the wind into a rotating action to drive the generator to produce electricity,
By transmitting the rotational power of the rotor (consisting of the aerodynamically driven blades) to the generator through the drive shaft. By 2008, the world's wind-generated electricity is about 94.1 million kilowatts, supplying more than 1% of the world's electricity. Wind energy, although not yet a major energy source for most countries, has grown more than fourfold between 1999 and 2005.
Modern use of turbine blades to the air flow of mechanical energy into electricity and become generators. In the Middle and Ancient times, the mechanical energy collected by the windmill was used to grind grain and pump water.
Wind power is used in large-scale wind farms and a number of power supply was isolated sites, for the local life and development has made tremendous contributions.
Wind energy is abundant, almost endless, widely distributed, clean and mitigate the greenhouse effect. There is a certain range of the Earth's surface. After a long period of measurement, survey and statistics of the average wind energy density that can be used within the scope of the basis of the energy density is usually marked on the map.
Human use of wind energy can be traced back to the history of BC, but thousands of years, the slow development of wind energy technology, did not cause enough attention. However, since 1973, the world's oil crisis, in the conventional energy crisis and the global ecological environment under the dual pressures of wind energy as part of the new energy was re-developed by leaps and bounds. Wind energy as a non-polluting and renewable energy has great potential for development, especially for coastal islands, poor accessibility of remote mountain areas, sparsely grassland ranch, and away from the grid and the near future is also difficult to reach the rural power grid , The border, as a solution to the production and living energy of a reliable way, has a very important significance. Even in developed countries, wind energy as a highly efficient clean and new energy is also increasing attention, such as: the US Department of Energy has investigated, just Texas and South Dakota, the two states of the wind energy density is sufficient to supply the United States energy used.
Wind is a natural phenomenon on the earth, it is caused by the solar radiation heat. The sun shines on the Earth's surface, the surface of the earth different heat, resulting in temperature, causing the formation of atmospheric convection wind. Wind energy is the kinetic energy of air, wind energy depends on the size of the wind speed and air density. Global wind energy is about 2.74X109MW, of which the available wind energy is 2X107MW, which is 10 times larger than the total water energy that can be exploited on the earth. The kinetic energy of air flow and wind energy. Wind energy is a form of solar energy conversion. The sun's radiation causes uneven heating of the Earth's surface, causing uneven distribution of pressure in the atmosphere, the wind along the horizontal direction of the air movement. The formation of wind is the result of air flow.
It is estimated that only about 2% of the solar energy reaching the earth is converted into wind energy, but the total amount is still very considerable. The global wind energy is about 130 billion kilowatts, 10 times more than the total amount of water that can be exploited on Earth.
The history of human use of wind energy can be traced back to BC. Ancient Egypt, China, Cuba Babylon is the world's first use of wind energy one of the countries. BC use of wind water, irrigation, grinding, Chung rice, with sailing to promote the ship forward. Due to oil shortage, modern sailing in modern times has been a great deal of attention. To the Song Dynasty is the application of windmills in China's heyday, when the popular vertical axis windmill, has been in use ever since. In foreign countries, the 2nd century BC, the ancient Persians on the use of vertical axis windmill rice. In the 10th century, the Islamists used the windmill to lift the water. In the 11th century, the windmills were widely used in the Middle East. 13 century windmill spread to Europe, the 14th century has become an indispensable prime mover in Europe. In the Netherlands the windmill was first used for the drainage of the Rhine delta and for low wetlands, and later for oil extraction and sawing. Only because of the emergence of the steam engine, the number of European windmills to a sharp decline.
For thousands of years, the development of wind energy technology is slow, also did not cause people to pay enough attention. However, since 1973, the world's oil crisis, in the conventional energy crisis and the global ecological environment under the dual pressures of wind energy as part of the new energy was re-developed by leaps and bounds. Wind energy as a non-polluting and renewable energy has great potential for development, especially for coastal islands, poor accessibility of remote mountain areas, sparsely grassland ranch, and away from the grid and the near future is also difficult to reach the rural power grid , The border, as a solution to the production and living energy of a reliable way, has a very important significance. Even in developed countries, wind energy as a highly efficient clean new energy is also increasing attention.
The United States began in 1974 as a federal wind energy program. The main contents are: to assess the country's wind energy resources; to study the social and environmental problems in wind energy development; to improve the performance of wind turbines and reduce the cost; mainly for agriculture and other users with less than 100kw wind turbine; for power companies and industry User-designed megawatt-class wind turbine. The United States in the 1980s has successfully developed 100,200,2000,
Wind energy street lamp
6,600,700 kW of wind turbines. At present the United States has become the world's largest installed capacity of wind power countries, more than 2X104MW, 10% annual growth rate.
Now the world's largest new wind turbine has been built in Hawaii Island operation, the wind turbine blade diameter of 97.5m, weight 144t, wind wheel angle adjustment and the wind turbine operation by the computer control, the annual generating capacity of 10 million kw · H. According to the US Department of Energy statistics to 1990 the United States accounted for 1% of total wind power generation. In Sweden, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Denmark, Germany, Japan, Spain, also according to their respective countries to develop a corresponding wind power plan. Such as Sweden in 1990 the installed capacity of wind turbines has reached 350MW, annual power generation 1 billion kw · h.
Denmark in 1978, built the Jutland wind power station, installed capacity of 2000kw, three blades swept diameter of 54m, 58m high concrete tower, is expected to 2005 10% of electricity demand will come from wind energy. Germany in 1980 in the Elbe estuary built a wind power station, installed capacity of 3000kw, by the end of the century wind power generation will also account for 8% of the total generating capacity. Britain, the British Isles near the ocean, wind energy is very rich, the Government also attaches great importance to wind energy development, wind power generation in 1990 accounted for 2% of the total UK power generation.
In Japan, in October 1991, Japan's largest wind power plant in Aomori, Aomori-ken, was put into operation. Five wind turbines could supply electricity to 700 households. China is located in the Southeast Asian continent, near the Pacific West Bank, monsoon strong. Monsoon is a basic feature of Chinese climate, such as the winter monsoon in North China for up to 6 months, up to 7 months in Northeast. The southeast monsoon prevails over the eastern half of China. According to the National Meteorological Administration estimates that the total reserves of wind resources for the annual 1.6 billion kw, the recent development of about 160 million kw, Inner Mongolia, Qinghai, Heilongjiang, Gansu and other provinces wind energy ranks the forefront of China, the annual average wind speed is greater than 3m / S the number of days in more than 200 days.
The development of China's wind turbine in the late 50's is a variety of wooden structure of the cloth-style windmill, 1959, only in Jiangsu Province, there are more than 20 million wooden windmill. To the mid-60s is the development of wind power machine. After the mid-70s wind energy development and utilization included in the "six five" national key projects, get rapid development. Since the mid-1980s, China has introduced a number of medium and large wind turbines from Denmark, Belgium, Sweden, the United States and Germany. Eight demonstration wind farms were established in Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, and Shandong, Zhejiang, Fujian and Guangdong. In 1992 the installed capacity has reached 8MW. Xinjiang Dabancheng wind power plant installed capacity has reached 3300kw, is the country's largest wind farm. By the end of 1990, the area of irrigated area of wind power has reached 2.58 million mu. In 1997 the new wind power generation 100,000 kw. At present, China has developed more than 100 different types of wind turbines of different capacity, and the initial formation of the wind machine industry. Nevertheless, compared with developed countries, China's wind energy development and utilization is still quite backward, not only the slow pace of development and backward technology, far from the scale. In the 21st century, China should increase investment in the development and utilization of wind energy, so that efficient and clean wind energy in China's energy pattern to occupy the land.
The development of the global wind energy industry has undergone several ups and downs alternately finally peaked, will usher in a new round of upsurge.
2013 for the global wind energy industry is undoubtedly a blow, but there are some remarkable points.
In the United States, the wind energy industry is the most prosperous Texas, where already has a 1.24 million MW of wind power installed capacity. Wind power contribution to the state grid is also growing.
China, in 2010 has achieved beyond the United States of wind power production capacity, becoming the world's largest wind energy producer. China also plans to add 39 MW of offshore wind power development scale.
In addition, in other parts of Asia, wind power projects are also in full swing. For example, in Pakistan, the total installed capacity of wind turbines in 2013 will double from 2012 to 100 megawatts, and the total installed capacity will double again with the implementation of two 50-megawatt wind projects in 2014. Similarly, Thailand will double the total installed wind power capacity by 220 MW in 2013. The Philippines completed in 2014, seven projects, the country's wind power installed capacity expanded to 450 megawatts, an increase of up to 13 times.
Visible, after dormant in 2013, as well as in 2014, Xu Li, the global wind energy industry will once again usher in the development of the boom, or even create a new record. 
The form of wind energy utilization is mainly to the kinetic energy of the atmosphere when the movement into other forms of energy. The wind is horizontal movement of the air, air movement, mainly due to the latitude on the earth to accept the different solar radiation intensity formed. In the equatorial and low latitudes, the solar elevation angle is large, the sunshine time is long, the solar radiation intensity is strong, the ground and the atmosphere receive more heat, the temperature is higher; in the high latitude area solar angle is small, sunshine time is short, the ground and atmosphere accept The heat is small and the temperature is low. This temperature difference between high latitudes and low latitudes forms a pressure gradient between north and south of China, allowing the air to move horizontally.
In theory, the wind should be blowing along the horizontal pressure gradient direction, that is, vertical and isobar pressure from high to low pressure blowing, but the Earth in the rotation, the air horizontal movement of the biased force, known as geostrophic force, this force to the Northern Hemisphere Right deflection, the southern hemisphere to the left deflection, so the Earth's atmospheric motion in addition to the pressure gradient force, but also by the geostrophic force of the impact. The real movement of the atmosphere is the resultant force of these two forces. In fact, the surface wind is not only dominated by these two forces, but also by a large extent by the ocean, terrain, mountains and straits can change the direction of air movement, but also make the wind speed, hills, Friction Ambassador wind speed reduction, isolated peaks but because of high altitude so that the wind speed increases. Therefore, the temporal and spatial distribution of wind direction and wind speed is more complicated. For example, in the winter, the continent is cooler than the ocean, the continental pressure is higher than the ocean, and the wind blows from the continent to the ocean. In the summer, the continent is hotter than the sea and the wind blows from the sea to the interior. This season-changing wind, we call the monsoon.
The so-called land and sea breeze is also the day when the air flow on the mainland to the high-altitude heat expansion to the ocean, to the ocean over the cooling and sinking in the ocean near the stratospheric airflow to the mainland to compensate for the rising airflow, low wind from the sea The mainland is called the sea breeze
, Night (winter), the opposite situation, low-level wind blowing from the mainland to the ocean, known as land breeze. In the mountains due to heat caused by the day by the valley to the plains or slopes, at night by the plains or hillside to the bottom, the former said Valley wind, the latter known as the mountain wind. This is because during the daytime heating of mountain slopes, the temperature is higher than the same temperature above the valley of the air temperature, the slope of the warm air from the hillside to the top of the valley, the valley of the air along the hillside up to add lost air, The hillside wind, known as the valley wind. At night, the slope due to radiation cooling, the cooling rate than the same height of the air faster, cold air down the slope into the valley, known as the mountain wind.
When the solar radiation through the Earth's atmosphere, the atmosphere absorbs about 2 * 10 ^ 16W of energy, of which a small part of the kinetic energy into the air. Because the tropics absorb more solar radiation than the subtropical, resulting in atmospheric pressure difference caused by air flow and wind. As for the local areas, for example, in mountains and deep valleys, during the daytime, the air at the top of the mountains is heated by sunshine and the cold air in the deep valleys is replaced by winds, so that the wind blows from high valleys to high mountains; From the mountains to the valley. Another example, such as in coastal areas, during the day due to land and sea temperature difference, and the formation of sea breeze blowing to the land; the other hand, at night from the land to the sea.
1 to 3 percent of the Earth's absorbed solar energy is converted into wind energy, equivalent to 50 to 100 times the energy of all the plants on Earth that absorb solar energy through photosynthesis and convert it to chemical energy. On the high altitude will find the wind energy, there are speed of more than 160 km (100 miles 160 km / h 100 mph) strong winds. The energy of these winds is finally released in a variety of thermal ways due to the friction between the surface and the atmosphere.
The surface temperature is faster than the sea surface; the effect of the stratosphere as the ceiling in the atmosphere accelerates the convection of the gas; Season / change; Coriolis effect ; The moon's reflection ratio, forming the wind.
Wind energy can be extracted by windmills. When the wind blows the wind wheel, wind driven wind wheel around the axis of rotation, making wind energy into mechanical energy. The amount of wind energy conversion directly with the air density, wind swept the area and the square of the wind speed is proportional to. Air mass flow through the wind swept the area, with the wind speed and air density change. For example, on a cool day at 15 ° C (59 ° F), the sea-level air density is 1.22 kg per cubic meter (the air density decreases as the humidity increases). When the wind blows at a speed of 8 meters per second over a 100-meter diameter runner, 1,000,000,000 kilograms of air can be swept across the wind wheel per second.
The kinetic energy of a given mass is proportional to the square of its rate. Since the mass flow increases linearly with the wind speed, the wind energy available to the wind turbine will be proportional to the cube of the wind speed; in this case the wind blower wind turbine power is about 2.5 megawatts.
Because the wind turbine draws energy, the air decelerates, causing it to spread and to some extent pinch it near the wind turbine. German physicist, Albert Betz, identified in 1919 that the wind turbine could extract up to 59 percent of the energy that would otherwise flow through the cross section of the turbine. Regardless of turbine design, the Betz limit application. The most recent work is at a theoretical limit of about 30% next to the turbines for propeller type. Actual efficiencies range from 1% to 20% for propeller type turbines, and are as high as 35% for 3D vertical axis turbines like Darrieus or Gorlov turbines.
2002 at Li Da Farm facilities in Colorado
There is a wind change and the average value for a measured location alone does not indicate that the wind turbine can cause a significant amount of energy there. In order to estimate wind speed, the probability distribution function is often adapted to the observed data at a particular site. Different locations will have different wind speeds to issue. The most frequently used distribution model for modeling wind climatology is the two-parameter Weibull distribution because it can follow a wide variety of release shapes, from Gaussian to exponential. The Rayleigh model, which is plotted on the right side against the actually measured dataset, is a concrete form of the shape parameter summation of 2 Weibull effects and very closely reflects the actual release of hourly wind speed at many locations. Since many electrical energy is generated by high wind speed, the available energy comes from the instantaneous large wind speed. A large proportion of the available energy is only 15% of the operating time, so it is not possible to use a fuel-fired thermal power plant to adjust the amount of electricity generated in response to demand. Since the wind speed is not a constant, the annual power generation of the wind power generation is not the marked rate of electricity multiplied by the total operating time (within one year), and the actual value and the theoretical value (maximum value) are called capacity factors. Installed wind turbines have a capacity factor of 35%, and a 1,000 kW wind turbine can generate up to 350 kW per year compared to turbines that use fuel-fired power generators. Short-term output power is difficult Forecast, but annual changes in power generation should be within a few percentage points. When stored, so that the storage of hydraulic electricity with a pump, or other forms of generation, is used to "shape" the wind power (by assuring continued delivery credibility), commercial delivery represents about 25% Submerged dynamic business performance.
The strength of the wind is usually expressed in terms of the wind class, which can be estimated by the wind or the surface of the sea being blown by the wind. The current international wind power estimates, the Department of Pufeng wind to the standard level. Bofu Shi for the British Admiral, in 1805 the first wind classification standards. First only for the sea, after the land is also used, and repeatedly revised, is today's general-level wind. The empirical relationship between the actual wind speed and the Po Fung wind class is:
V = 0.836 * (B ^ (3/2))
B is the Po Fung wind series, V is the wind speed (unit: m / s)
In general, the wind turbine starting wind speed of 2.5 m / s, his face felt the wind and the leaves shaking case, has already started running power generation, and when the wind speed of 28 to 34 m / s, the fan will automatically detect Measured to stop the operation to reduce the damage to the receptor itself.
For more information on wind energy, please refer to Zhang Huaiquan's "Wind Resources and Micro-site: Theoretical Foundation and Engineering Application".
Advantages and disadvantages
Wind energy is the source of clean energy.
Inner Mongolia grassland wind turbine
Wind power facilities are progressively increasing, and mass production reduces costs. In the right places, wind power costs are lower than other generators.
Wind energy facilities are mostly three-dimensional facilities, can protect the land and ecology. 
Wind power is renewable energy, very environmentally friendly, very clean.
Wind energy saving and environmental protection.
Wind power is an ecological problem that could interfere with birds, such as the Kansas gorges in the United States after the windmill appears to have gradually disappeared. The current solution is offshore power generation, offshore power prices higher but the efficiency is also high.
In some areas, the economics of wind power are inadequate: winds in many areas are intermittent. Worse still, such as Taiwan, where demand for electricity is high in summer and during the day, is less windy; must wait for compressed air And other energy storage technology development. 
Wind power requires a lot of land to build wind farms, can produce more energy.
When wind power is generated, wind turbines generate a lot of noise, so find some open space to build.
Now the wind power is not yet mature, there is considerable room for development.
Limitations and disadvantages
Wind energy utilization has some limitations and drawbacks
1) wind speed instability, resulting in the size of the energy instability;
2) Wind energy utilization is severely restricted by geographical location;
3) low conversion efficiency of wind energy;
4) Wind energy is a new energy, the corresponding use of equipment is not very mature.
5) in the terrain is relatively open, less obstructions or high-lying areas where suitable for wind power.
The cost of using wind to generate electricity has been much lower, even without other extrinsic costs, and the cost of using wind power in many appropriate locations has been lower than that of fuel-fired internal combustion engines. The annual growth rate of wind power in 2002, about 25%, and now is the proportion of 38% rapid growth. US wind power growth in 2003 exceeded the average growth rate of all generators. Since 2004, wind power has become in all new energy is the cheapest. The cost of wind energy in 2005 has been reduced to one-fifth of the 1990's, and the trend continues with the use of large wattage generators.
La Muela in Aragon, in the north-east of Spain, with a total area of 143.5 square kilometers. Since 1980, the new mayor is optimistic about the abundant northeast wind resources and strongly promote wind power. Over the past 20 years, 450 fans have been built (rated capacity of 237MW), bringing rich benefits for the local. Local government and to plan a well-planned town welfare, attracted many people moved to this, just five years, residents have increased from 4,000 to 12,000 people. La Muela has become a well-known sightseeing and leisure destination from an unknown wilderness town.
Another Bouin of the northwest of France was originally produced in the sea oysters and sea salt produced well, July 1, 2004, eight wind turbines officially in operation, the eight fans and oysters, sea salt three, while the town of sightseeing Features, attracting a large number of tourists from all over the influx of visitors, bringing abundant tourist income.
The formation of land and sea breeze
Taiwan's Miaoli County, the town after the Cape of Good Hope due to the high position of the coastal hills, the early years is a good place to look at the Taiwan Strait, in recent years, foreign investors in the vicinity of the set of 21 high 100 meters of wind generators, the formation of beautiful scenery. The company in 2003, fancy Miaoli strong coastal northeast monsoon in winter, to start in the post-dragon, bamboo and other places to set up wind generators, which set up the Dapeng wind farm after the establishment of 21 fans, power generation total installed capacity Which is the largest wind farm in Taiwan. Since its opening in June 2006, it has become a new tourist attraction, attracting many people to visit. The Cape of Good Hope is located at the top of the cliff in the middle of the day. There are 4 and 5 fans in the north and 4 and 4 fans in the south. Besides, the sea line runs from the foot of the mountain and faces the wide Taiwan Strait. The scenery is quite fascinating. Become one of the best attractions to enjoy the wind turbine.
The main technology
① horizontal axis wind turbine technology. Because the horizontal axis wind turbine has the advantages of high efficiency of wind energy conversion and shorter shaft, it has become the main model of wind power development in the world and occupies more than 95% market share in large-scale wind turbine. At the same time, the development of the vertical axis wind turbine, because the shaft is too long, the wind energy conversion efficiency is not high, start, shutdown and pitch problems, the current market share is small, limited number of applications, but because of its wind and wind- And generators can be placed under the wind wheel (or ground), etc., in recent years, the international research and development is also ongoing and made some progress.
(2) The capacity of stand-alone wind turbines continuously increases, and the utilization efficiency is continuously improved. In recent years, the world's wind power market on the stand-alone capacity of wind turbines continued to increase, the world's mainstream models have increased from 2000 to 2000 1000 1000 kilowatts in 2004 to 2 to 3 megawatts, the world's largest wind turbine running stand-alone capacity For 5 MW, and has begun the design and development of 10 MW wind turbine.
③ offshore wind power technology has become the development direction. The current cost of offshore wind farms is 1.7 to 2 times that of offshore wind farms and 1.4 times that of on-road wind farms, so the economy is not as good as that of land-based wind farms. With the continuous development of technology, the cost of offshore wind power Will continue to lower, its economy will gradually highlight.
④ variable pitch speed, power regulation technology has been widely used. As a result of variable pitch power regulation with load control is stable, safe and efficient, this year in the large-scale wind turbine has been widely used.
⑤ Direct-drive, full-power converter technology has developed rapidly. The direct-take-no gear box can effectively reduce the unit failure caused by the gear box problem, which can effectively improve the reliability and life of the system and reduce the maintenance cost, which has been favored by the market and the market share is expanding.
⑥ new vertical axis wind turbine. It adopts a completely different design concept and adopts the new structure and materials to achieve excellent performance such as breeze start, no noise, anti-typhoon above grade 12 and no wind influence. It can be widely used in villas, multi-storey buildings and high-rise buildings, Street lamps and other small and medium-sized applications. It has the advantages of stable power output, high economy, little impact on the environment and so on. It also solves the impact of the solar energy development on the power grid. 
Countries to encourage policies
Wind power generation since the 80s began to be Europe and the United States attention, since the global wind power generation capacity of 30% per year at an alarming rate of rapid growth. The world's renewable energy promotion system, can be divided into:
Fixed-price systems (fixed-price systems): the Government to develop renewable energy preferential purchase price, determined by the number of the market. The main methods include:
1. Equipment subsidies (investment subsidies): Denmark, Germany and Spain in the early stages of wind power development, are using equipment subsidies
2. Fixed feed-in tariffs: Germany, Denmark and Spain
3. Fixed-premium systems
4. Tax credits: the United States
Fixed quantity systems (renewable quantity systems): also known as renewable energy system (renewable-quota system, the United States known as the Renewable Portfolio Standard), the Government provides renewable energy power generation, market-determined prices. The main methods include:
1. Competitive systems (tendering systems): Britain, Ireland and France
2. Tradable green certificate systems (tradable green certificate systems): Britain, Sweden, Belgium, Italy and Japan
The two motivations are intended to create a market for the protection of renewable energy through the Government's power to make more investment in the electricity market efficiency, and its ultimate goal is to enhance technology and reduce costs, to ensure that renewable energy in the future in the free market and Traditional Energy Competition.
Growth of countries
Deutsche Bank's latest research report is expected, the global wind power development is entering a stage of rapid expansion, the wind energy industry will maintain an annual growth rate of 20% by 2015, the industry output will increase to 5 times the current level.
From the current technological maturity and economic viability of view, the most competitive wind energy. In the medium term, the prospects for the global wind energy industry are quite optimistic. Governments will continue to introduce renewable energy incentives, which will be the industry's rapid next few years
Offshore Wind Energy Development
Development provides a great impetus.
Asia and the Americas are expected to be the most promising regions in the coming years. China's wind power installed capacity will achieve 30% annual high-speed growth, India's wind energy will also maintain an annual growth rate of 23%. India encourages large enterprises to invest in the development of wind power, and the implementation of preferential policies to encourage wind power manufacturing base, at present India has become the world's fifth largest wind power producer. In the United States, with the introduction of new energy policy, the wind energy industry will achieve 25% per year of extraordinary development. In Europe, Germany's wind power development in a leading position, including wind power equipment manufacturing industry has replaced the automotive industry and shipbuilding industry. In the recent long-term plan for wind power development in Germany, it is pointed out that by 2025, wind power will account for 25% of the total electricity consumption and 50% of the total consumption by 2050.
European countries, which have been leading the field in wind energy, are expected to slow their growth rate to 15% per year by 2015. One of the earliest development of wind energy countries such as Germany, Denmark and other land-based wind farm construction is basically saturated, the next major development direction is the offshore wind farm and equipment updates. Britain, France and other countries still have great potential, the growth rate will be higher than the average level of 15%.
At present, Germany is still the world's most advanced wind power technology countries. German wind power installed capacity accounted for 28% of the world, while the German wind power equipment production accounted for 37% of the global market. In the domestic market is gradually saturated, the export has become a German wind power equipment company's main growth point.
The German government through price subsidies and other means to support the industry through technological innovation to maintain the leading position. This year, Germany will revise the "Renewable Energy Law" to increase the subsidy price for offshore wind farms from 9.1 Euro cents per kWh to 14 Euro cents.
In China, in 2006 the National Development and Reform Commission, Ministry of Science and Technology, Ministry of Finance and other eight departments jointly issued the "Eleventh Five-Year" ten key energy-saving project implementation views. " According to the standards of ten energy-saving key projects and the policy guidance of the government to support the environmental protection and energy-saving industry, energy-saving renovation, energy saving, oil-saving and oil substitution and renewable energy will be rapid development in the future.
At present, according to the industry magazine "Wind Energy World" records, the Chinese market the hottest renewable energy, such as wind energy, solar energy and other industries. Wind energy resources are more renewable, never dry, non-polluting and other characteristics, comprehensive social benefits. Moreover, the most mature wind power technology development, the lowest cost. According to the "Eleventh Five-Year" national wind power development plan, in 2010 the national wind power installed capacity reached 500 million kilowatts, in 2020 the national wind power installed capacity of 30 million kilowatts. The end of 2006, the country has been completed and built about 91 wind farms, the total installed capacity of only 2.6 million kilowatts. Visible, fan market attractive prospects, the development of space.
China 's Current Situation
Reserves and Distribution
China is located in the eastern Asian continent, near the Pacific Ocean, the monsoon strong, there are many mountains inland, complex terrain, combined with the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau west of China, changing the sea and land caused by atmospheric pressure distribution and atmospheric circulation, increasing the complexity of China's monsoon. Winter monsoon from Siberia and Mongolia and other high latitude inland, where the air is very cold and dry cold air accumulation to a certain extent, in the favorable high-altitude circulation under the guidance of the outbreak of the south will be commonly known as the cold tide, frequently south of this strong cold air control and Under the influence of the formation of cold and dry northwest wind invasion of northern China provinces (municipalities and autonomous regions). There are always a number of major annual cooling strong cold air south, mainly in northwest China, northeast and north China, until the turn of the next spring and summer to disappear. The summer monsoon is the southeasterly winds of the Pacific Ocean, the southwest winds of the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea. The southeast monsoon affects the eastern half of China, while the southwest monsoon affects the southwest provinces and the south coast. Tropical Storm is the western Pacific Ocean and the South China Sea tropical cyclone formed on the air, is a great destructive ocean storm, summer and autumn each year frequently attacked China, landing on the South China Sea and the southeast coast, tropical storms can also be in the north of Shanghai Landing, but the number of small. 
Jiuquan City has built China's first 10 million kilowatt-class super-large wind power base for China's most important wind power base.
The Qinghai-Xizang Plateau is high-sounding open, southeasterly southeasterly winds in the southeastern part, northeasterly northeasterly winds, and the other regions are generally westerly. In the summer, the Tanggula mountain ranges from south to northeasterly. China has a vast territory, with a total length of over 20,000 km, and more than 18,000 km of coastline, the edge of the island in the sea more than 5,000 wind energy resources. China's existing wind farm site annual average wind speed reached 6 m / s or more. Generally speaking, the wind farm wind conditions can be divided into three categories: the average annual wind speed of 6 m / s or better; 7 m / s or better; 8 m / s or more is very good. According to the wind speed frequency curve and unit power curve, the estimated international standard atmospheric state of the unit's annual power generation. China is equivalent to more than 6 m / s in the country, only a few limited to a few areas. In terms of inland, only about 1/100 of the total area of the country, mainly distributed in the southeast coast of the Yangtze River and Nanao Island and its islands, these regions are China's largest wind energy resource area and wind energy resource-rich areas, including Shandong, Peninsula, the coast of the Yellow Sea, Nanao Island to the west of the South China Sea coast, Hainan Island and the South China Sea Islands, Inner Mongolia from the Yinshan Mountains to the north of the Greater Xing'an Mountains, Xinjiang Dapan, Alashankou, Hexi Corridor, Songhua River, Zhangjiakou North As well as the distribution around the mountain and the mountain peak.
According to the statistics and calculations of some wind energy data of the National Meteorological Observatory, the percentage of China's wind energy zoning and the area of the whole country is shown in the following table.
Indicator Rich area Rich area Available area Poor area
Annual effective wind energy density (W / ㎡)> 200 150-200 50-150 <50
Year ≥ 3m / s Total number of hours (h)> 5000 4000-5000 2000-4000 <2000
Year ≥6m / s Total Hours of Work (h)> 2200 1500-2200 350-1500 <350
Percentage of total area (%)
Table China wind energy zoning and the percentage of the country's total area
Wind energy is part of the Earth's natural energy, wind energy potential of China is estimated as follows: wind energy theory can develop the total (R), the country is 3.226 billion kilowatts, the actual development of (R ') is estimated as 1/10 of the total, taking into account that the actual swept area of the wind wheel is 0.785 times the area of the square of the airflow [1 m diameter wind wheel area is 0.5 2 × π = 0.785 ( Square meters), so the actual development can be: R '= 0.785R ÷ 10 = 2.53 (100 million kilowatts).
China is a big energy importer, the use of renewable energy is a top priority, especially in the vast wind of China's rural areas rich in resources, the Chinese government should increase subsidies for the purchase of wind power equipment, including solar panels roof subsidies, if the rural household Power to do half of self-sufficiency, can save energy every year more than 20 million degrees. I hope the state will increase its efforts in this regard.
China's total wind energy resources at 10m high level of 3.226 billion kW, of which the actual development and utilization of wind energy reserves of 253 million kW.
The effective wind energy density is greater than or equal to 200W / ㎡ contour line parallel to the coastline; Coastal island effective wind energy density in 300W / ㎡ above, the annual wind speed is greater than or equal to 3m / s (http://www.agile-news.com/) .Southwest coast and its nearby islands are rich in wind energy resources, Of the number of hours is about 7000 ~ 8000h, greater than or equal to 6m / s hours of 4000h.
Jiuquan City, northern Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia is also rich in wind energy resources in China, the effective wind energy density of 200 ~ 300W / ㎡, the annual wind speed is greater than or equal to 3m / s hours for 5000h above the annual wind speed greater than or equal to 6m / S for more than 3000 hours.
Heilongjiang, eastern Jilin, northern Hebei and Liaodong Peninsula, the wind energy resources are also good, the effective wind energy density of 200W / ㎡ above the annual wind speed is greater than and equal to 3m / s hours for 5000h, the annual wind speed is greater than and equal to 6m / S the number of hours for 3000h.
The annual wind speed is greater than and equal to 3m / s for 4000 ~ 5000h, annual wind speed is greater than and equal to 6m / s time for 3000h; but the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau High altitude, air density is small, so the effective wind energy density is low.
Yunnan, Guizhou, Sichuan, Gansu (except Jiuquan City), southern Shaanxi, Henan, western Hunan, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi mountains and Xinjiang Tarim Basin and Tibet Yarlung Zangbo, for wind energy resource-poor areas, the effective wind energy density of 50W / , The annual wind speed greater than and equal to 3m / s in 2000h the following hours, the annual wind speed greater than and equal to 6m / s in the 150h hours, the wind potential is very low.